1.2 — Ad caeli clara

NotationDate10th c.; ?
TypeFrench
NotesA mixed French script, whose variety of forms suggests an early date, possibly the tenth century. The pes (2a) is particularly varied in formation: the angle of the ascender of the conjunct form varies from the near vertical to the diagonal; the disjunct forms resemble those found in Breton scripts. The clives (2b) are similarly varied: the disjunct form resembles those found in Aquitanian scripts; the conjunct form resembles those found in Breton scripts. The ink of the notation and text are now in a similar shade of brown ink and were possibly written by the same hand. The end of the second 's' in gessi and the beginning of the neume above it are now indistinct.
No similarities between the melodic profiles of the four surviving notated melodies can be claimed with any degree of certainty (see the book entry for parallel transcription). However, similar melodic patterns can be observed in Pa lat. 1154 and the first strophe of Pa lat. 8318, namely ab, cb', cd, e. The melodic profiles recorded in Be 455 and the second strophe of Pa lat. 8318 may also be said to share points of similarity; in this case, a pattern that may be summarized as A, A', B, c.
TranscriptDiplomatic
Transcription
 Adcaeli-Paris8318
Alphanumeric
transcript
1c, 1c, 2a, 1b, 3c+2'b, 1a, "2b", 2a, 2b, 1b, 4e, 1b | 1a, 1c, 1c, 1b, 3'''B, 1a, 1c, 2a, 1b, 1c, 4e, 1b | 1a, 1c, 1c, 1a, 3'''B, 2V, 1b, 3c, 3a'', 1a, 1c, 2b | "2b", 1c, 2a, 1b, 1b || 3c, 1c, 1c, 2''x, 1b, 1c, 1c, 1c, 1c, 1a, 2''x, 1b | 3c, 1c, 1a, 2''x, 1c, 1c, 1c, 2a, 1c, 1c, 1c, 1b | 3a, 1c, 2a, 1c, 1c, 1c, 3c, 1c, 1c, 1c, 1c, 2b | 1c, 1c, 2a, 2b, 1b
Comparison
between neumes
 XAdcaeli-1   XAdcaeli-2
MelodySequences of neumes are repeated within the first strophe in the following pattern: ab, cb', c'd, e. The sequence of neumes added to the second strophe differs substantially from those added to the first strophe. There is a certain similarity between the sequence of neumes added to the first and second lines of the second strophe, suggesting an overall strophic pattern of A, A' B, c. On the possibility of reconstructing the melody recorded for the second strophe and inferences that may be drawn from it, see the book entry.
Transmission
The simplest model for explaining the transmission of the melody reconstructed from Paris lat. 8318 would be as follows:
Sapphic hymn melody (Monumenta monodica I, 107)
         \
         Pseudo-sapphic melody for Ad caeli clara (Paris lat. 8318, str. 2)
            \
            Pseudo-sapphic melody for Quis infelici (Vatican lat. 3797)
What is striking about this suggestion, however bare in outline, is that it mirrors the stages envisaged for the creation of the text of Ad caeli clara by Norberg i.e. the direct imitation of a Sapphic hymn by Eugenius of Toledo in Paulinus’ Ad caeli clara, followed by imitations of the pseudosapphic form of Ad caeli clara. Questions inevitably remain about every aspect of the process of melodic creation and transmission, the most tantalising of which is whether the hymn composed by Eugenius was sung to the widespread Sapphic melody thus opening up the possibility that melodic and textual imitation and transmission occurred alongside each other.
The similarity between the melody recorded for the second strophe in Paris lat. 8318 and the melody for Petrus Damiani’s Quis infelici in an
eleventh-century Italian manuscript raises the further question of whether the melody recorded in Paris lat. 8318 was known in Italy before its transmission to the North. This question cannot be answered definitively, but the similar later recording of a melody for Mecum Timavi in an Italian source that is found earlier in French sources (see the entry for Mecum Timavi) lends weight to the notion that certain melodies remained relatively stable in transmission and might have been known in Italy before transmission to France. It may additionally be noted that the same halfline pattern of repetition in the melody observed in Paris lat. 1154 and Paris lat. 8318, str. 1 is found for Gloriam Deo as notated in both Paris lat. 1154 and Roma, Biblioteca Angelica 123. It is therefore possible that a melody using this pattern of repetition (ab cb cd e) for the pseudo-sapphic strophe was also known in Italy before transmission north. All the melodies for Ad caeli clara are notated in West Frankish sources. The hand that added the text of Ad caeli clara is consistent with the midninth century Loire origin ascribed to the manuscript by Bischoff and a Loire provenance is possible given the characteristics of the notation. The Lotharingian notation in Bern 455 was in all probability added when the manuscript reached Laon, while the notation in Paris lat. 1154 was most likely added in Aquitaine. The evidence from notated manuscripts is thus that the poem was sung widely in West Francia at least during the tenth century. Notations were only added to Ad caeli clara in verse collections, but a wider sung dissemination may be assumed on the basis of the inclusion
of the poem among hymns in three unnotated manuscripts: Karslruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek Aug. CXCV 36, München, Bayerische
Staatsbibliothek Clm 27305 and Vatican Reg. lat. 334. In München 27305, the rubric Ymnus omnibus horis canendus points to the
singing of Ad caeli clara as an Office hymn. The fact that Ad caeli clara does not appear in hymnals nevertheless suggests that it was not routinely used in this way. The inclusion of Ad caeli clara alongside collects (München 27305), prayers (Vatican Reg. lat. 334) and penitential material (Karlsruhe 36) suggests instead a more occasional and devotional use.